For Europe, there is no Arab policy, or at least one Arab policy. Its policy in the Middle East is marked by two major paradoxes. First of all, it considers that the crises in the region are foreign to its sphere of influence and do not constitute a direct threat to its security. However, Europeans are regularly questioned by certain issues, such as the migration crisis, instability and the terrorist threat. These questions preoccupy the citizens by accentuating the doubt and the withdrawal of identity, the fears of a “conquering Islam” and of “the arrival in mass of foreigners carrying another culture”.
The second paradox is the absence of a common European policy towards the Middle East. This absence stems from the discrepancy between the point of view of the European Union and that of its member states, linked to often contradictory agendas. The European withdrawal is accompanied by the emergence of new regional powers, which are becoming major players: Turkey, Iran, Russia and Israel. States determined to weigh heavily on the development of the region. Thus Europe finds itself at the periphery of a triple regional reconfiguration without being associated with it.